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高二英语Saving the earth总复习

[导读]高二英语Unit9 Saving the earth知识点总复习教案 课时跟踪讲练 Section I 课前准备、听力、口语 1. What are the biggest problems facing the earth? 地球面临着的最大问题是什么? (p. 65 Warming Up Ex.1) 1) 现在分词短语facing the earth在句中作定语,相当于定语从句...
            高二英语Unit9 Saving the earth知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. What are the biggest problems facing the earth? 地球面临着的最大问题是什么? (p. 65 Warming Up Ex.1)
 1) 现在分词短语facing the earth在句中作定语,相当于定语从句that face the earth. face此处用作及物动词,意为"面向,朝",作此义也可用作不及物动词,常和介词to,toward或on连用。如: ① She turned to face the newcomer and introduced herself. 她转过身来面对新来者作了自我介绍。 ② The building faces the park. 那座建筑物面对着公园。③ The window faces on the street.窗户面对着衔道。 ④ -- How does this house face? --It faces to the east. -- 这座房屋面朝哪边? -- 朝向东边。
 【拓展】 face还可意为"面对/临(问题或不愉快的情况)"。如:① Manufacturing industry faces a grim future if the government pursues its present policies. 如果政府继续推行现行政策,制造工业就会面临严酷的未来。② He couldn't face his boss after marking such a fool of himself at the meeting. 他在会上做出了这样的丑事之后,不敢面对自己的老板。
 【链接】与face构成的常见短语:face a person down 以势压人; face up to 勇敢地对付(敌人、困难等); be faced with 面临;面对; face out 大胆地坚持到底; face to face 面对面;相对; in a person's face 当着/对着某人的面; in (the) face of 面对;不顾; make/ pull a face(faces) 扮鬼脸; pull/make/put on a long face 拉长脸;显出不高兴的样子; set/put one's face against强烈反对,抵制; take on a new face面貌一新; turn one's face away把脸转过去
 【注意】face the music不能译为"面对音乐",其意思是"面对失败,接受批评,承担后果"。如:He knew he'd never get away with it so he decided to face the music and give himself to the police. 他知道自己已经无法逃脱,所以他决定承担后果并向警察自首。
2. Why is she giving this speech? 她为什么发表演讲呢? (p. 66 Listening Part 1 No.1)
 speech此处意为"演说,演讲",常用作单数形式,"发表演说"多用动词give,make,deliver等与之搭配。如:① I had to give a speech to the Press Club. 我不得不向记者俱乐部发表演说。② He delivered a speech in English on world-peace. 他用英语发表了一篇关于世界和平的演说。
 【拓展】speech 作"说话能力;言论;口音"讲,是不可数名词。如:① Only human beings are capable of speech. 只有人类才具有说话能力。 ② The illness deprived her of the power of speech. 她因病失去了说话能力。 ③ Speech is silver, silence is golden. (谚)雄辩是银,沉默是金。④ His speech shows that he's from Sichuan. 一听他的口音就知道他是四川人。
 【链接】 speech习惯搭配种种:find one's speech 说出话; have a speech with sb. 和某人说话 lose one's speech (因恐吓等)说不出话; address a speech to sb. 给某人作报告; close a speech 结束讲话; wander in one's speech 演说时东拉西扯
 speech 指事先有准备的报告,也可指即席发言。lecture一般指教师在课堂上授的课或讲座。talk通常指非正式的演说或报告。① He made a speech at the meeting. 他在会上发了言。② He will give a lecture on the history of the Party. 他将作关于党史的讲课。③ We are going to listen to a talk this afternoon. 今天下午我们要听报告。
3. What do you think she will say next? 你认为她下步讲什么呢? (p. 66 Listening Part 1 No.4)
 1) 本句为双重问句。双重问句有两种形式:
 (1)一般疑问句型双重问句:本结构属于一般疑问句,主句谓语动词常是ask (询问),tell (告诉),know (知道),realize (意识到),make sure (确信)等,宾语由特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句充当。如:① Do you know why we can't be allowed to smoke here? ② Can you still remember when we visited the Great Wall last year? ③ Have you told him how we are going to the cinema? ④ Do you realize how serious the problem is?
 (2)特殊疑问句双重问句:本结构属于特殊疑问句,谓语动词常是think,hope,believe,suppose,guess,say,consider,imagine等,宾语也由宾语从句充当,但没有引导词,前面主句的特殊疑问词在逻辑上是宾语从句的一部分。有些形容词如afraid,sure,glad,certain,surprised,pleased等也可用于本句型。如: ① Who do you think will be the likeliest candidate for the manager of human resource department? 你认为谁最可能是人力资源部经理? ② What do you think his explanation is? 你如何考虑他的解释? ③ It is necessary, do you think,to translate the whole article? 你认为整篇文章都翻译有必要吗? ④ Which mouse did you say you picked out? 你说你选哪种鼠标? ⑤ How long can you be sure they'll be here? 你能肯定他们在这儿呆多久?
 【注意】本句型一般不用Yes或No回答,常把句型中的一般疑问句变成"陈述句+宾语从句" 来回答,陈述句也可后置,其前用逗号。如:-- How much do you think this car cost? -- I think it cost 4 000 dollars. -- 你认为这辆车得花多少钱? -- 我认为得花4000美元。
 2) next此处用作副词,意为"下一步,然后",也可作"其次;下次;次于...的"等。如: ① First you heat the fat; next, you add the onions. 首先你把油烧热,然后加洋葱。
② Tell me what to do next. 告诉我接着做什么。③ I'll tell you the answer when we meet next. 下次见面时,我将告诉你答案。④ I like tennis best of an and swimming next. 我最喜欢网球,其次是游泳。⑤ Tom is the next tallest boy in our class. 汤姆是我们班上身高第二的学生。
 【拓展】next作形容词,意为"紧接着的;其次的;下一个的"可指时间、地点、顺序等;next也可作名词,意为"下一位/个"如:① Take the next left turn after the school. 到了学校见下个路口向左拐。 ② Call me up on Saturday next. 下星期六请给我打电话。 ③ They used to live next door to us. 他们以前住在我们隔壁。 ④ I shall tell you in my next. 我在下封信里告诉你。 ⑤ Mrs. James was the next to make a speech. 詹姆斯太太是下一位演讲人。
 【注意】next不能单独用在decade或century之前。如:(×) Something will happen next decade.
  (√) Something will happen in/during the next decade. 下个十年将会发生某些事情。
 【辨析】next;the coming: next指位置、时间上紧挨着和past相对,常用next替代。  ① The next house to ours is a mile away. 离我们家最近的下一座房子在一英里之外。② Where will you be during the next/coming few weeks?下几个星期你们将在什么地方?
4. Coal is a valuable resource that can be used to produce energy, but it can also cause serious pollution. 煤是一种用来生产能量的珍贵资源,但是,它也能引起严重的污染。(p. 66 Speaking 'Situation')
 1) valuable意为"贵重的、重要的;有益的;有作用的",常与介词for或to连用。如:① They gave us valuable practice in helping the eyes,brains and muscles to work together. 他们在使眼睛、头脑和肌肉协同动作方面提供宝贵的锻炼机会。② This tool is valuable for doing electrical repairs. 这工具对修理电器很有用。 ③ I'm sure my information is valuable. 我确信我的消息很有价值。
 【链接】valuable相当于be of value。如:This book is very valuable to me in my studies. = This book is of great value to me in my studies. 这本书对我的学习很有价值。
 valuable指任何值钱的或可以带来巨额利润的、非常有用的或受人珍视的东西。/ priceless意为"无价的,贵重的",用于加强语气、加深程度等情况。/ invaluable意为"无法估价的",不用于谈金钱,而指品质。/ precious指任何昂贵的、贵重的、珍贵的东西,尤其适用于失掉后无法补偿的东西。① This ancient gold coin isn't just valuable,it's priceless. 这枚古金币不只是珍品,而且是无价之宝。 ② His advice has been invaluable to the success of the project. 他的意见对于这项工程的成功是无可估量的。③ To me, our friendship is a very precious thing. 对我来说,我们之间的友谊是非常珍贵的。
 【注意】表示东西价值很小或没有价值时,用worthless或valueless。如:It looked like gold, but in fact it was worthless/valueless. 这看起来像是金子,其实毫无价值。
 2) 在定语从句that can be used to produce energy中,动词use被用作被动时态,be used to do sth. 意为"被用来做......"。如:① This old box is used t0 keep books.这个旧箱子用来装书。② Every means has been used to prevent pollution. 我们已利用各种手段来防止污染。③ Coal can be used to keep warm. 煤可用来取暖。
【链接】(1) used to do sth. 指过去常做某事,而现在不再如此,强调今昔对比。
be                  sth.
(2)    get        used to
become              doing sth.
(3)  be used for sb. 为某人而用/ doing sth. 被用来做某事;as/for sth. 被当成...用 ① I don't smoke these days, but I used to. 我现在不抽烟,但我以前是抽的。 ② You will soon get used to our way of life. 你将很快习惯于我们的生活方式。 ③ The girl is being used as a servant in the house. 这女孩在家里被做佣人使用着。④ What do you use this tool for? 这个工具用来做什么用的?
5. You will attend the meeting and discuss the issue.你将参加会议并讨论问题。(p. 66 Speaking 'Situation')
 1) attend可用作及物动词或不及物动词,此处意为"参加;出席;到场",可用于被动语态。如:① She was sick so she didn't attend her classes. 她生病了,所以没去上学。② The football match was attended by thousands of football fans. 数以千计的球迷观看了这场足球赛。③ Please let me know if you are unable to attend. 如果你不能出席,请通知我们。
 【拓展】attend 还可意为"照料" (常和on/upon连用) 和"接待" (常和to连用)。如: ① She attended (on) the wounded soldier day and night. 她日夜护理着负伤的战士。② Are you being attended to? 有人招待你吗? (店员对客人的招呼语)
 【辨析】attend,join(in);take part in
 attend主要指出席,参加某一活动,强调出席者只是在其中"听"或"看"等,不起积极作用,主要指参加会议;上课(学);参加典礼(葬礼);听演讲等。join可指参加某一团体或组织,成为其中一员,也指参加某项正在进行着的活动,但不如join in常用。join (sb.) in指加入到某人的活动中来。take part in指参加活动(不表示进行),会议、运动等,并在其中起着积极作用。① She didn't attend the wedding. 她没有出席婚礼。② Do you know how many people joined the organization? 你知道有多少人参加了那个组织吗? ③ They watched the game,and then they were invited to join in it. 他们先是观看比赛,后来又被邀请参加。④ The leading group decided to tell all the workers to take part in the strike. 领导小组决定通知所有的工人参加罢工。
 2) discuss意为"讨论",常用作及物动词,其后主要接名词、动名词wh-从句,疑问代词/副词+不定式。如:① We discussed literature over tea. 我们边喝茶边讨论文学。② We discussed how to do it and who should do it. 我们讨论要如何处理以及该由谁来处理这事。③ We discussed holding the sports meet next week. 我们讨论了下周开运动会的问题。④ We discussed whether we should close the shop. 我们讨论了是否应该把店关掉。
 【注意】discuss之后不可接about,on等,但名词discussion之后可接about。如: ① (×) We discussed about the matter (with them). ② (√) We discussed the matter (with them).  ③ (√) We had a discussion about the matter (with them.) 我们(和他们)讨论这件事。
 【辨析】discuss;talk over  *discuss强调讨论的气氛通常是融洽的,目的是"达成共识"。* take over强调详尽透彻的讨论过程。① He said they had discussed exchanging scientists and technicians. 他说他们讨论了交换科学家和技术人员的问题。② We must talk the matter over. 我们必须把这件事彻底议一议。
6. You think that we should spend more money on science so that we can use the coal in a better way, because... 你认为为了能用一种更好的方式利用煤,我们应该在科技上面投入更多的资金,因为... (p.66 Speaking)
 in a better way意为"用更好的方式"。在形容词、副词比较级前一般不用冠词,但下列场合例外:
 (1) 形容词比较级作定语,所修饰的名词为表示泛指的单数可数名词one时,比较级前常加不定冠词。如:① Iron is a more useful metal than gold. 铁是比黄金更有用的金属。② My second answer to this question of difficult vocabulary is, I think, a much better one. 对词汇难的问题,我想我的第二个办法是一个较好的办法。
 (2) 形容词比较级作定语,所修饰的名词若是特指,必须加定冠词the,此时常常有表示范围的of the two,但也可省略。如:① The larger of the two islands is Britain,
which lies to the east of Ireland. 较大的那个岛是不列颠,在爱尔兰东面。② Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? 哪个国家更大,加拿大还是澳大利亚?
 (3) 在"否定词+比较级+n."结构中,用比较级的形式从反面表示最高级的意义,句型中的名词前必须加不定冠词。如:① No city has a larger population than London in the United Kingdom. 在英国没有一个城市比伦敦人口多。② I can't think of a better idea.我想不出比这更好的主意了。
 (4)...the more...,the more...结构,表示两个变化同时发生,意为"愈......,愈......"前者相当条件状语从句,后者是主句。此时the不能省略。如: ① The sooner you start, the more quickly you'll be finished. 你开始得越早,就完成得越快。② The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 你越努力,进步就越大。
7. You want to do what is best for everybody. 你想做对人家是最好的事情。(p. 66 Speaking)
 1)形容词最高级用于同自身不同场合相比较时不用the。如:I'm busiest on Tuesday.我星期二最忙。
 2)形容词最高级前有物主代词、名词所有格时不用the。如:Mary is my best friend.
 3)两个或多个形容词最高级并列使用时,只在第一个最高级前加the。如:It is the widest and busiest road in the town.
 4)形容词最高级在句中作宾语补足语时常不带the。如:I find listening hardest in English. 我觉得英语听力最难。
 5)most常和多音节形容词连用构成最高级,但most前没有the或有a时,most相当于very。如:① She is most beautiful. 她非常美丽。② This is a most difficult problem to solve. 这是一个非常难以解决的问题。
 6)在某些习惯用法中,最高级形容词前不带the。如:① With best wishes. (信末结束语) 祝好。② It's best to go to her birthday party. 最好去参加她的生日聚会。
8. Take notes, summarize and help the speakers decide. 作作笔记、总结一下,然后帮助发言者作决定。(p. 66 Speaking)
 take notes意为"作笔记,记录"也可说take a note (of),make notes (of) 或 make a note (of),但note用作复数形式更常见。如:① She took good notes of everything that's said in class. 她把老师讲得全都作了笔记。② He made a note of how much money you spent on the trip. 他把你在旅途中花了多少钱作了记录。③ Please make notes of my new address. 请记下我的新地址。④ He never forgets to make notes for his speech. 他从未忘记在演讲前先拟好草稿。
 【链接】与note构成的相关短语:take note of 注意到/ arrange one's notes 整理笔记/ compare notes 对笔记;交换意见/ exchange notes 互换笔记/ go over notes 复习笔记/ keep notes on 继续记......的笔记/ change one's notes 改变主意/ speak from notes 根据提纲发言
 【拓展】note用作动词,意为"记下;记录;注意。"如:① I noted down the lecture. 我记下讲课的内容。② I noted that he was going to say something. 我注意到他想说些什么。
9. I'm all for... 我完全拥护... (p. 67 Useful expressions)
 1) all此处用作副词,意为"完全;全然;都",其后常接形容词、副词、介词短语等,用来加强语气。如:① She sat all alone. 他独自一个人坐着。 ② The old lady gets all confused when she has a lot of visitors. 来访的客人多了,老太太就会手忙脚乱,不知所措。③ I'm all in favor of your suggestion. 我完全赞成你的建议。④ He was all wrong. 他完全错了。⑤ The program was an about the danger of smoking. 该节目的内容全都是关于吸烟的危害性。
 2) 介词for此处意为"赞同;支持;同意",其反义词是against。如:① I'm all for the young enjoying themselves.我完全赞同年轻人多玩玩。② She is an for buying a new car. 她无论如何也要买部新车。③ Which party did you vote for? 你投票给哪个党? ④ Are you for his plan 0r against it? 你赞同还是反对他的计划?
Section II 阅读
9. WELCOME TO THE EARTH SUMMIT. 欢迎参加地球峰会。(p.67 Reading 'Title')
 welcome此处用作叹词,意为"欢迎光临"。如:① Welcome to our home! 欢迎到我们家里来! ② Welcome home/back! 欢迎回家/回来! ③ Welcome to Beijing! 欢迎来到北京!
 (1) welcome还可用作及物动词,意为"欢迎(人),高兴迎接"。如:① The Queen welcomed the President as he got off the plane. 总统走下飞机时,女王上前迎接。 ② The heroes were warmly welcomed by the masses. 英雄们受到了群众的热烈欢迎。③ I shall welcome the coming of warm weather. 我将欢迎温暖天气的来临。
 (2) welcome也可用作形容词,意为"受欢迎的、被愉快接受的"。如:① You are always welcome at our house. 欢迎你随时来我们家。② He didn't make his guests very welcome. 他待客冷淡。③ All suggestions will be welcome. 欢迎一切建议。
 (3) welcome也可用作名词,意为"欢迎、款待",为可数名词。如:① They gave us a warm welcome. 他们热烈欢迎我们。② The president of the college extended a warm welcome to the visiting professor. 院长向来访的教授表示热烈的欢迎。
 (4) You are welcome. (回答对方道谢时的客套话,主要用于美国英语),意为"不用谢,不客气"。如:-- It's just what I wanted. Thank you very much. -- You're welcome. -- 这正是我要的东西,非常感谢。-- 不用谢。
 【注意】welcome是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词是welcomed,welcomed,而不是welcome,welcome;"欢迎某人做某事"不能说welcome sb. to do sth. 而说sb. be welcome to do sth. 如:(×) We welcome foreign friends to visit China. (√) Foreign friends are welcome to visit China.我们欢迎外国朋友来中国看看。
10. In 1972, the United Nations held a meeting in Stock- holm, Sweden to share ideas about ways to take better care of the earth. 1972年,联合国在瑞典首都斯德哥尔摩举行会议就"如何更好地保护我们的地球"达成共识。(p.67 Reading 第一段 第1行)
 share此处意为"赞同(想法等)",还可作"分享(感情、利害等);共同使用;分配;均摊"讲,如:① Moore is the only person who shares my opinion. 莫利是惟一一位与我的观点相同的人。② It's always better to share your worries and problems. 把你的忧虑和难题说出来比憋在心里好。③ They always shared (in) their joys and sorrows. 他们总是同甘共苦。④ We haven't enough books for everyone; some of you will have to share. 我们的书不够每人一本,你们中有些人得合着一起看。⑤ At his death,his property was shared between his children. 他死的时候,财产由他的孩子们平分。⑥ I'll share with you in the costs. 我愿意跟你分担费用。
 【拓展】share用作名词,意为"(利益、报酬等的)份儿,一份",常与of,in连用。如:① I haven't got my share of the cake yet. 我还未分到我的一份蛋糕。② Each had his share in the profit. 各人分得自己的一份利益。
11. Since then, several Earth Summit have been held and much progress has been made.打那以来,已举行了数次地球峰会,且取得了很大进步。(p.67 Reading 第一段 第4行)
 progress是不可数名词,意为"进步;进展;前进"。如: ① He made great progress in English. 他在英语方面大有进步。② Jane is still in hospital, but she's making good progress. 珍妮还在住院,但她的健康恢复很快。③ The ship made slow progress through the rough sea. 船在大风大浪中行驶得很慢。
 【拓展】progress还可作不及物动词,意为"取得进步;进展(顺利)"。如: ① We are now progressing steadily with our work. 我们的工作目前进行得很稳当。② He is progressing in his studies. 他学习不断进步。
12. One of the main themes of the summit was "sustain- able development", or the question how we can continue developing the world without damaging the environ- ment. 这次峰会的其中一个主要议题就是"持续性发展",或者是不破坏环境我们如何继续推动世界发展的问题。(p.67 Reading 第一段 倒数第4行)
 1) continue意为"继续",可用作及物动词和不及物动词。作及物动词,其后主要接名词、动词不定式、动名词、that从句等。用于不中断的继续或中断后的继续。如: ① After a ten-minute break, the class continued. 休息了10分钟后,又继续上课。② He continued reading when I spoke to him. 我跟他说话时,他仍然继续阅读。③ After that, he continued to devote himself to research work. 在这以后,他继续致力于研究工作。④ The politician continued that he thought the government should call an election. 那位政治家接着说,他认为政府应该举行一次选举。
 【辨析】 go on to do/doing,last;continue to do/doing: go on to do/doing有明显差异,主要指内容上的转换或时间上的停顿、间歇,使用频率较高,不用于被动语态。last;continue有部分交叉关系,last常表示时问或物态的继续存在,不用人及有生命的东西作主语,不用于被动语态。continue to do/doing几乎没有区别,中间可有停顿可不停顿。① He went on talking as though nothing had happened. 他若无其事地继续讲下去。(涉及同一件事) ② He went on to show us how to do it in a different way. 他接着又教我们用另一种方法做这件事。(涉及到两件不同的事) ③ The war lasted four years. 战争持续了四年。④ Will you continue doing the work after dinner? 晚饭后你继续于活吗?
 【拓展】continue也可作连系动词,意为"仍旧...,持续...的情况",其后主要接形容词和介词短语。如: ① The weather continued cold and wet. 天气还是那样又冷又潮。② She still continues in weak health. 她身体依旧虚弱。
 2) without后接动名词,表示"没做某事......"。如:① He managed to open the box without showing us what was in it. 他设法把箱子打开了,却没让我们看见里面装的是什么。② He rubbed his hands all the time as if he was washing them, and smiled without stopping. 他一直在搓着手,好像是在洗手,并且不停地笑着。③ For three days Tom worked without (taking) any rest.汤姆不停息地干了三天。
 【注意】not/never...without (doing) sth. 是双重否定结构,意为"无...不,必定",用来加强语气。如:① The two can never talk without smiling. 他俩谈话没有不笑的时候。② He can't take his meal without wine. 他每餐必喝酒。
 【辨析】 with no;without
 * with no表示没有的东西,是该人或该事物的特点。
 * without表示没有的东西,是指在正常情况下缺少的东西。① He's a person with no sense of humour.他是一位无幽默感的人。② Without water we can't live. 没有水我们就不能生存。
13. In Johannesburg, experts from all over the world spoke about different topics and discussed new ways to solve old problems. 在约翰内斯堡,来自全世界的专家讨论了不同的主题,讨论了解决老问题的新办法。(p.67 Reading 第二段 第1行)
 speak about/on意为"谈论;论及",往往是比较详尽地谈一个问题或题目,若指一般地提及某事,多用speak of。如:① They were speaking about their boss. 他们在谈论着他们的老板。② Think this matter over and we'll speak about it tomorrow morning. 这事你先想想,咱们明天早上再谈。③ I haven't yet spoken t0 him on this subject. 我还没与他详谈此事。④ I hope you will not speak of it again. 我希望你不要再谈起此事了。
 【链接】与speak构成的常见搭配: speak well/highly of 赞扬 / speak ill of... 说......坏话 / generally speaking 一般而言 / strictly speaking 严格地说 / speak for itself (事情)不说自明 / speak to oneself 自言自语 / speak out one's mind 说出心里话 / speak out 大声说出,毫无顾虑地说出 / speak from the heart 凭良心说 / speak by the book 说话确切
14. According to the World Health Organisation, the big three cause more than seven million deaths every year. 根据卫生组织的报告,这三大杀手致使每年有七百万人死亡。(p.67 Reading 第二段 第4行)
 1) according to是复合介词,意为"据...所说",表示信息来自别人或别的地方,而不是来自我们自己已经知道的情况。如:① According to our records, the books you have borrowed should now be returned to the library. 根据我们的记录,你借的书现在应该还给图书馆了。② According to the timetable, the train gets in at 8:27. 根据时刻表,列车8:27进站。③ According to George, she's a really good teacher. 按照乔治的说法,她是一位真正的好老师。④ From each according to his ability, to each according to his work. 各尽所能,按劳分配。
 【注意】according to之后不能接view,opinion等词作宾语,习惯上用in one's opinion;也不能说according to me。如:(×) According to me/my opinion,the rent is too high. (√) In my opinion,the rent is too high. 依我看,租金太贵。
 2) death作"死亡"讲,可用作可数名词或不可数名词,用作复数形式时,表示死亡的人数。如:① Death comes to an men. 人固有一死。② His mother's death was a great blow to him. 他母亲的去世对他是个大打击。③ She told me the deaths of her husband and two sons for the first time. 她头一次向我谈起她丈夫及两个儿子的死。④ Did he die a natural death, or was he murdered? 他是自然死亡的,还是被谋杀的? ⑤ In the hurricane there were 256 deaths and 68 missing. 在这次飓风中有256人死亡,还有68人失踪。
 【注意】"致使某人死亡"可说cause sb. To die,而不能说cause sb. to death。
 【链接】与death构成的常见搭配:die a dog's death 惨死 / die a hero's death 英雄牺牲 / drink oneself to death 醉死过去 / sentence sb. to death 判处某人死刑 / suffer death 遭受死亡 / receive death at one's hand 自寻短见 / be dead on 善于;竭力反对 / in death as in life 虽死犹生 / (as) sure as death千真万确的 / (as) pale as death苍白得像死人一样
15. 20% of the people on earth do not have access to clean drinking water. 世界上20%的人没法喝上干净的饮用水。(p.68 Reading 第一段 第1行)
 1) on earth此处意为"世界上",多用于加强最高级的语气。如:① I'm the luckiest man on earth. 我是世界上最幸运的人。② China is one of the greatest nations on earth. 中国是世界上最伟大的国家之一。③ Who do you think is the greatest man on earth? 你认为谁是世界上最伟大的人?
 【链接】on earth用在when,what,who,where,how,which,why之后,用来加强语气,意为"究竟、到底"。如:① What on earth do you mean? 你究竟是什么意思? ② What on earth are you doing? 你到底在干什么?  ③ Who on earth told you that? 究竟是谁告诉你这件事的? ④ Where on earth has she gone? 她到底去哪儿?
【注意】on earth用于否定句中,相当于not...at all,意为"一点儿也不"。① No force on earth can hold back the wheel of history. 没有什么力量能阻止历史车轮的前进。② Nothing on earth can prevent me from doing that. 没有什么能阻止我那样做。
 【链接】in the earth意为"在地下,在地里";on the earth意为"在地球上"。如: ① He buried the body of the dog in the earth. 他把那狗的尸体埋在了地下。② There are more than one million living creatures on the earth. 地球上有一百万种生物。
 2) access主要用作不可数名词,意为"(向场所等的)接近,进入;接近/利用......的权利 / 机会",作"通道"讲,也可用作可数名词。常与介词to连用。如:① It is difficult to gain access to him. 要接近他很难。② The only means of access to the building is along a muddy track. 进入这座建筑的惟一通道是一条泥泞的小路。③ All students have access to the library. 所有的学生都可以进入图书馆。④ She gave me access to her records. 她答应我借用她的唱片。
16. Most of the deaths happen in rural areas, where people burn wood and coal to cook food and stay warm. 大多数的死亡发生在农村地区,那儿的人们烧木头和煤来做饭及取暖。(p.68 Reading 第一段 第2行)
 1) happen主要表示"(偶然)发生",不用于被动语态,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如: ① No one knew who had fired the gun-it all happened so quickly. 没有人知道谁开的枪一事情发生得太快了。② I can't understand how this happened. 我不明白这是怎么发生的。③ We shouldn't allow such things to happen again. 我们不允许再发生类似的事情。
 【注意】"happen to+名词/代词"意为"(某人)发生(某情况,尤指不幸的事),(某物)如何"。如:① If anything should happen to him, that would be too bad. 万一他要出什么事,那就糟了。 ② She hoped nothing bad would happen to him. 她希望不会有坏事发生在他身上。
 happen还可表示"碰巧",此时不能用于进行时态,主要用于"happen to do"或"It (so/just) happened that..."结构中。如:① I happened to be out when he came. 他来时我碰巧不在。② The famous actor happened to be her brother. 那位著名的演员碰巧是她哥哥。
 【链接】as it happens意为"碰巧,说来也凑巧"。如:I don't have my ID card with me now, as it happens. 碰巧我没带身份证。
 【辨析】happen;occur;take place:happen主要指事件或事故的偶然发生。/ occur常指意外或预料、计划中的事情发生。/ take place指有计划、有准备的事情,一般不含有偶然性,有时有"举行"的意思。三者都不是及物动词,不能用于被动语态。① When did the explosion happen/occur? 爆炸是在什么时候发生的?  ② When will the wedding take place? 婚礼将在何时举行?  ③ A leap year Occurs every four years. 每四年有一次闰年。
 2) stay此处用作连系动词,意为"维持、保持(原有状态)",其后常接副词、介词短语、形容词或名词。如:① Don't turn off here;stay on this road. 别在这儿拐弯,顺着这条路继续走。② The price has gone down, but I doubt whether it will stay down. 物价下跌了,但我怀疑
是否能保持不涨。③ The weather has stayed warm all week. 整个一周天气都很暖和。 ④ The shop stays open till eight in the evening. 商店一直营业到晚上八点。⑤ I stayed awake throughout the storm night. 那个暴风雨的夜晚我未曾合眼。⑥ He never got promoted,and stayed a private during all his time in the army. 他从未得到提升,在军队里一直是个士兵。
 【辨析】stay;remain 两者在表示"仍处于原来的状态之下"意思时可互换。stay侧重短时期的状语,remain侧重长期的状态。① This letter remained/stayed in my drawer all day. 这封信在我抽屉里放了一整天。 ② It was not yet light, so it was easy to stay hidden. 开还没亮,因此很容易藏起来。③ We must always remain modest and prudent. 我们必须总是保持谦虚谨慎。④ The weather will stay fine for a few days. 天气有望能晴几天。⑤ They never remained satisfied with their success. 他们从不满足于自己的成绩。
17. Many speakers also spoke about poverty, war, and violence. 许多发言者也讲到了贫穷、战争及暴力。(p.68 Reading 第二段 第1行)
 violence是不可数名词,意为"暴力;暴行;(行动或感情表现出的)强烈力量;猛烈;激烈"。如:① Many people say too much violence is shown on television. 许多人都说电视上出现的暴力镜头太多。② Whatever happens, I will never use violence. 无论如何,我绝不使用暴力。③ You don't know the violence of her anger. 你不知道她的愤怒有多激烈。④ The wind blew with great violence. 风刮得很猛。⑤ The violence of his words alarmed her. 他言辞的激烈使她震惊。
 【拓展】violent是violence的形容词形式,意为"(人) 粗暴的;猛烈的;激烈的"。如:① The mad man was violent and had to be locked up. 这个精神病患者很凶暴,不得不把他锁起来。② She was in a violent temper and began throwing things about. 她大发脾气,乱扔起东西来。③ I had a violent toothache. 我牙疼得很厉害。
 【注意】do violence to 对......施暴;歪曲事实; violent with violence 猛烈地
18. If we are to develop the world successfully, we must make sure that everyone is able to take part in the new world we create. 如果我们想成功地推动世界的发展,我们就必须确保每个人都能加入到我们创造的新世界里来。(p.68 Reading 第二段 第1行)
 "be + 动词不定式"结构在本句中表示"计划、打算(=be going to)"。如:① We are to go to town this afternoon. 下午我们打算去城里。② We are to meet again 0n Sunday evening. 我们星期六晚上再见。③ The line is to be opened to traffic on National Day. 这条铁路将在国庆节通车。④ The Queen is to visit Japan next year. 女王将明年访问日本。
 【拓展】"be + 动词不定式"的常见用法还有:(1) 表示命令,意为"必须,不得不 (= must,have to)"。如:You are to do your homework before you watch TV. 你得做完了作业才能看电视。(2) 表示可能性,相当于can,主要用于疑问句和否定句。如:① How am I to know what has become of him? 我怎么知道他的遭遇呢? ② Not a sound was to be heard. 一点声音也不可能听到。(3) 表示假设。如:Certain skills must be learned if one is to use English effectively. 如果想要有效地使用英语,某些技巧是必须得学的。(4) 表示目的。如:This house is to be let or sold. 这房子出租或出售。(5) 表示结果。如:He was to blame for not locking the door. 没有锁门是他的过错。(6) 表示命运注定,通常用于过去时。如:He came to power, but he was to pay dearly for it: soon he was assassinated. 他得到了权力,但是却也为此付出了昂贵的代价:不久他就被暗杀了。(7) 用来征求对方意见。如:What are we to do during the weekend? 我们周末干什么好呢? (8) 用于第二人称,有时表示转达别人的指示。如:Here is a message for you from your head-teacher: you are to go to her office after class. 你的班主任带给你一个口信,要你下课后到她的办公室去。
19. All too often, global development means that rich people get richer while the poor get poorer. 通常情况是全球性发展意味着富人越富而穷人越穷。(p.68 Reading 第二段 第3行)
 1) all too用作副词,意为"太过于"。如:① The trip ended all too often. 那次旅行结束得太快了。② These scenes of violence are all too familiar. 这些暴力场面简直是太熟悉了。
 2) get此处用作连系动词,表示状语的改变,其后常接形容词(表示"进入/变为某种状语")、名词(表示"已经变化")动词不定式(表示"由...变为...")、过去分词(表示"突然/偶然发生某事")和现在分词(表示"开始......起来")。如:① I want to plant the roses before it gets dark. 我要赶在天黑之前种上这些玫瑰。② You'd better take an umbrella with you if you don't want to get wet. 不想被淋湿的话,你最好带把雨伞。③ The boy is getting(to be)a burden to the family. 这男孩子逐渐成为家里的负担。 ④ I'll soon get to know what you are planning. 我会很快明白你在计划是什么。⑤ Some glasses got broken when we were moving. 我们搬家的时候有些玻璃被打破了。⑥ We got talking,and didn't notice the time. 我们谈了起来,没有注意到时间的流逝。 ⑦ Our report is late;we must get going/moving/leaving. 我们的报告耽误了;我们必须抓紧时间做。
 3) while在此用作并列连词,连接并列句,意为"而,然而",在意义上相当于and then/but,强调两者的对比关系。如:① Motion is absolute while stagnation is relative. 运动是绝对的,而静止是相对的。 ② He is a worker while I am a doctor. 他是工人,而我是医生。③ They were surprised that a child should work out the problem while they themselves couldn't. 令他们吃惊的是,一个孩子能够做出的题目,而他们自己竟做不出来。④ Their country has plenty of oil, while ours has none. 他们国家盛产石油,而我们国家却一点儿也没有。
 【注意】while应置于两个分句之间,但有时也可置于句首。如:① While I like the colour of that hat, I don't like its shape. 我虽然喜欢这帽子的颜色,但我却不喜欢其样式。② While I have no money to spend, you have nothing to spend money on. 我没有钱花,而你却有钱无处花。
 【拓展】while可作从属连词引导状语从句,表示时间、让步、条件等。如:① He hurt himself while he was playing football. 他在踢足球时受了伤。② While he was respected, he was not liked. 他虽然受到尊敬,但没有受到喜爱。 ③ There will be life while there's water and air. 只要有水和空气,就会有生命。
20. Among the speakers was China's then Premier Zhu Rongji, who stressed the need for equality and fairness in the world. 在发言者中有当时的中国总理朱基,他强调了世界范围内平等和公正的必要性。(p.68 Reading 第二段 第5行)
 1)本句中的主句部分用了倒装语序,其陈述语序是China's then Premier Zhu Rongi was among the speakers. 英语中,有时为了使句子平衡或使上下文衔接紧密,可将表语部分提前构成倒将语序。如:① Present at the meeting were Professor Huang and many other guests. 出席会议的有黄教授和许多其他客人。② Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people. 他们任意摆布中国人的日子已经一去不复返了。 ③ Among the goods are Christmas trees, candles and toys. 在这些物品中有圣诞树、蜡烛和玩具。
 2) stress在此用作及物动词,意为"着重;强调",也可作"重读"讲。如:① He stressed the need for careful spending if they were not to find themselves without enough money. 他强调说,他们如果不想使自己缺钱花,就有必要仔细规划各项开支。② He stressed the impor- tance of cooperation. 他强调合作的重要性。③ She stressed that we should always be honest. 他力言我们应当诚实。④ The word "machine" is stressed on its second syllable. "machine"这个单词的第二个音节要重读。
 【拓展】stress也可作名词,意为"强调;重视;重要性([U])"或"压力;紧张([U;C])"。如:① The teacher laid particular stress on the need for accuracy.老师特别强调了准确的必要性。② Some schools lay (put) stress on foreign language education.某些学校重视外语教育。③ He is under great stress because of his new job. 新工作使他感到沉重的压力。
21. Richer countries have a responsibility towards poor- er countries and must do whatever they can to help others. 较富裕的国家对较贫困的国家负有责任,必须尽力帮助其他国家。(p.68 Reading 第二段 第6行)
 responsibility作"责任、义务"讲,可作可数名词,常与for连用;作"职责、义务"讲,是可数名词。其反义词是irresponsibility。如:① I will take (the) responsibility for the task. 我会对那项工作负责。② Now that you're 17 you should have more sense of responsibility. 既然你17岁了,你应当有更多的责任感。③ It is his responsibility to make arrangements for the meeting. 安排该次会议是他的职责。④ The head of a large company has many responsibilities. 大公司的领导人要负责的事情很多。
 【拓展】形容词responsible意为"对(尤指坏事)负责任的",指对人负责,常与介词to连用,指对某事负责,常与介词for连用。如:① He is responsible to me for it. 这件事他对我负责。② We are responsible for our own actions. 我们应对自己的行为负责。③ The boy was responsible for feeding the chickens. 那个男孩负责喂鸡。
 【注意】作此义讲,responsible是表语形容词,不能作定语。若人作主语,表示"应负责任的",若主语是物,表示造成事实的原因。如:① Who is responsible for this terrible mess? 谁应对这一团糟局面负责? ② The weather is responsible for the delay. 由于天气原因才耽误了。
22. Conferences like the Earth Summit help people understand that there exist serious problems and that there is still time to take action. 像地球峰会这样的会议帮助人们了解还存在着严重的问题及还需要时间来采取行动。(p.68 Reading 第三段 第1行)
 1) conference;meeting的区别:conference比较正式,指重大、规模较大的会议或专业性较强的学术(研讨)会议。meeting为普通用语,指一般性的会议。 ① Our English teacher has gone to Beijing to attend the conference on education. 我们英语老师赴京参加教育会议。 ② The important conference was held at the Hague in 1899. 那次重要会议于1899年在海牙召开。③ We have a class meeting every Friday. 我们每周五开班会。④ When is the school sports meeting going to be held? 学校运动会什么时候召开?
 2) 在there be结构中,根据需要be可换成stand,appear,seem,remain,exist,come,lie,happen,enter等。如: ① There once lived an old hunter in the house. 这所房子里曾经住过一位老猎人。② There seems to be some misunderstanding about the matter. 在这个问题上似乎有误会。③ There came shouts for help from the river. 从河边传来了求救声。④ There happened an event. 发生了一件事。⑤ There appear to be several reasons for changing our plans. 看来改变我们的计划有几个理由。(不能说:There appears...,因主语为复数)
 3) take action意为"采取行动"。如:① The police had to take firm action to deal with the riots. 警方不得不采取果断行动来对付骚乱。② Let's see how they take action next. 且看他们下步如何。③ An action must be taken to check this tendency. 必须采取行动,制止这种倾向。
 【辨析】act;action: act指短暂、简单而具体的个别动作,也用于具有某性质的动作。action指时间持续较长、复杂的、多步骤的、抽象的动作。☆在用不可数名词表示总的概念时,多用action,而不用act。① The young man did another foolish act. 这青年又做了一件傻事。② Force is the action of one object on another. 力是一物体在另一个物体上的作用。③ It was your act and you must accept the consequences. 那是你的行为,你必须自食其果。④ He is a man of action. 他是一位实践家。
23. If all of us make small changes, we could make a big difference.如果我们所有的人都做出点小的改变,那么我们就能够产生巨大的差别。(p.68 Reading 第四段 倒数第1行)
 make a/the difference意为"产生差别;有影响;起重要作用"。如:① It makes a difference which you choose. 你选择哪一个,关系重大。② It makes no difference to me whether he goes or not. 不管他去或者不去,对我都没多大影响。③It doesn't make any difference to me whether you go or stay. 对我来说,你走还是留关系不大。
 【拓展】make a difference 还可作"区别对待"讲。如:    We should make a strict difference between friends and enemies. 我们必须严格区分敌友。
 【链接】与difference构成的习惯搭配have a difference 有差异 / tell the difference 辨别差异 / split the difference 把差额平分;互让 / wipe out the difference 消除分歧/差别 / difference between A and B  A与B的差别 / difference of opinion 意见分歧 / difference in age 年龄差别
24. A better understanding of the environment is necess- ary, as is the willingness to act. 更好地了解环境是必要的,这是心甘情愿的行动。(p.68 Reading 第五段 第2行)
 as在此用作关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,用来指代主句的整个概念,可置于句首、句中或句末,含有"正如......的"之意。如:① As we know,more than seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water. 我们知道,百分之七十以上的地球表面被水所覆盖。② This kind of computer, as is well-known, is out of date. 众所周知,这种计算机现在已经过时了。③ Yesterday Mr.Green quarrelled with his wife, as seldom happened. 昨天格林先生同妻子吵了架,他们是很少吵架的。
 【辨析】as;which: 两者都可引导非限制性定语从句,指代主句或主句的一部分内容,有时可以互换,但as位置灵活,which只能置于主句之后;as常用于as has been said,as is well-known,as often happens,as may be imagined,as we know,as we can see,as we expect等结构中,而which不能;但当从句的谓语动词是否定形式或谓语类似是一个复合宾语结构时,一般用which而不用as。① Abraham Lincoln was shot at a theatre in Washington, which made the American people very sad. 亚伯拉罕・林肯在华盛顿一家剧院遭到枪杀,这使美国人民非常悲痛。② He was strongly against the idea, as would be expected. 正如可预料的那样,他强烈反对这个意见。    ③ He made the same mistake, which made the teacher very angry. 他又犯了同样的错误,这使得老师非常生气。 ④ His son turned thief, which surprised everyone in the village. 他的儿子当了贼,村里的人都感到惊奇。
 【拓展】as也可用来引导限制性定语从句,主要与the same,such等连用。如:① Let children read such books as will make them better and wiser. 让孩子们读那种会使他们变得更好更聪明的书籍。② What is learned in books cannot have the same deep effect on a child's character as what is learned by experience. 书本上学来的东西对孩子品质的影响,不可能和亲自体验中学来的东西的影响一样深刻。
25. With better education, people will be able to build a better society in harmony with nature and perhaps put and end to the death and suffering caused by the big three. 受过良好的教育,人们将能够建立一个更好的社会来与大自然相协调,可能就可以结束来自三大杀手引起的死亡和痛苦。(p.68 Reading 第六段 第2行)
 1) in harmony (with)意为"(感情、思想等)和睦;融洽"。如:① Her ideas were no longer in harmony with ours. 她同我们的想法不再一致了。② My cat and dog never fight - they live together in perfect harmony. 我养的猫和狗从来不打架-它们相处非常和睦。③ I had nothing in harmony with Mrs. Reed or the children, or her chosen vassalage. 我跟里德太太、她的女儿,以及她的仆人,根本都不融洽。
 【拓展】be out of harmony with意为"与...不相称,不调和;与...不融洽,不和睦"。The music is out of harmony with his tastes. 这音乐不和他的趣味。
 2) put an end to意为"结束;使终止"。如:① I'm determined to put an end to all these rumours. 我决心要制止所有的这些谣言。② They should put an end to that ridiculous war. 他们应该终止那场荒谬的战争了。
 【链接】与end构成的常见搭配:bring...to an end 使...终止 / come to an end 完毕,结束 / make an end of 把...终止 / make(both)ends meet 量人为出 / draw to an end 结束;完成 / keep one's end up 精神饱满地对待 gain/achieve one's end 达到目的 / meet one's end 送命/ at the end of 在末尾;结束 /  by the end of 到......末 / in the end 终于,归根到底 / on end 竖着;连续地
26. If the world becomes less unfair and people can get better education, much of the poverty can be wiped out. 如果世界变得公平,人们能接受好的教育,大量的贫困是能够被消灭的。(p.68 Reading 第六段 倒数第3行)
 wipe out意为"擦洗......的内部;去除;消灭"。如:    ① Could you wipe the basin out? 把洗脸盆里面弄干净好吗? ② It was wiped out from his memory. 那件事从他的记忆中被抹掉。③ The entire population was wiped out by the terrible disease. 所有的居民都被可怕的疾病夺去了生命。④ The wicked must be wiped out of existence. 必须要消灭恶人。 ⑤ I should intensely dislike being wiped out over such an issue. 我就极不愿意为这么一个问题送掉性命。
 【拓展】 wipe off 意为"擦去;(把债等)偿还;消灭掉"; wipe away 意为"擦去"。如:① It will be wiped off the earth. 它将从地球上被消灭掉。② The rain then falling wiped away all the footprints. 当时下着雨,把所有的足迹都冲洗掉了。③ He wiped his tears away (from his face).他擦掉眼泪。
27. And if poverty is less of a problem and people are better educated, there is a good chance that we will see less violence and fewer wars. 如果贫困不那么成问题,人们接受良好的教育,我们就非常可能见到较少的暴力与战争。(p.68 Reading 第六段 倒数第2行)
 句中less是代词,与可数名词或不可数名词连用,意为"较少(小)的",常与of或than连用。如: ① Can we have a bit less noise/less of that noise?少一点噪音 (少一点那种噪音) 行吗? ② He knows little of mathematics,and less of chemistry. 他数学很差,化学更差。③ To get the balance right you need a bit less of the almond flavouring and a bit more of the cinnamon. 要使味道适当,你得少放点杏仁,多加点肉桂。④ I saw less 0f her after that. 从那时起,我比以前更少见到她了。⑤ Statistics show that people now drink less beer than they used to, and smoke fewer cigarettes.统计数字表明人们现在比过去喝啤酒少了,而且抽烟也少了。
Section III 词汇、语法、综合技能
28. People of the world must make use of alternative transportation. 世界上的人必须使用其中一种交通工具。(p.71 Integrating Skills Ex.1)
 alternative 用作形容词,意为"(两者或两者以上)选其一的;非此即彼的;替代的",无比较等级形式;alternatively是其副词形式。如:① I offered the alternative suggestions of spending the vacation in the mountains or by the sea. 我提议这次度假不是到山上就是到海边去。② The way was blocked, so we had to go by an alternative road. 这条路被封锁了,所以我们必须走另一条路。③ You are welcome to come with us now in our car. Alternatively you could go later with Mary. 你可以现在搭我们的车一起走,或者你也可以等一会儿跟玛丽一起走。
 【拓展】alternative用作名词是可数名词,意为"(两者或两者以上)选择;二选一"此时常用the alternative形式,也可指"可供选择的办法(或方案)"。如:① You have the alternative of speaking or of keeping quiet. 你或者发言,要不然就保持安静。② We took the alternative of walking. 我们选择步行。③ I had no money, so I had no alternative to staying (no alternative but to stay) at home.我因为没有钱,所以除了呆在家里别无选择。
 【注意】We have several alternatives to choose from. (我们有几种不同的选择。) 这类句子十分常用,但经常被认为是不正确的,因为只有两种alternatives,即应是二者选一。
29. Make sure that you are ready to answer questions and defend your argument. 确保你准备好回答问题和为你的论据辩护。(p.71 Integrating Skills Ex.3)
 1) be ready to do sth. 有四种意义: a. 已准备好干某事;b. 欣然做某事;c. 眼看就要做某事;d. 易于,有......的倾向。如:① We are ready at all time to start. 我们随时准备出发。 ② Are you ready to go on the trip? 你准备好这次旅行了吗? ③ The soldiers were ready to die for their country. 战士们愿为国捐躯。④ I'm always ready to make friends. 我总是喜欢交朋友。⑤ The little girl was ready to burst into tears. 那小女孩快要大哭起来了。⑥ The rope was ready to break. 那条绳子快要断了。 ⑦ She is always ready to argue. 她总是喜欢争论。⑧ She is too ready to find fault. 她太爱吹毛求疵。
 【链接】与ready构成的搭配:get/make ready for...为...做好准备;ready at/to hand 在手边的,手头的    get/make...ready 准备...;ready with 巧干...的;立即...的;ready against 预防;ready at 擅长于;巧干...的
 2) defend在此处意为"为......辩护(答辩)"。如:① How can you defend the killing of animals for scientific research? 你怎能为因科学研究而杀死动物的行为辩护呢? ② The lawyer defended the accused. 这位律师替被告辩护。③ I'm prepared to defend my ideas. 我准备好为自己的构想辩护。④ She defended herself successfully in court. 她在法庭上成功地为自己进行了辩护。⑤ I can't defend his drinking on the job. 我不能为他在工作时喝酒进行辩护。
 【拓展】defend另一常见意义为"保卫... (免受...之害);防守"。如:① When the dog attacked me, I picked up a stick and defended myself. 当那只狗攻击我时,我拾起木棍自卫。② We shall defend our country, whatever the cost may be. 无论付出什么代价,我们都要保卫我们的祖国。③ They couldn't prevent us defending the rights of workers. 他们不能阻挠我们捍卫工人的权利。
 【辨析】protect;defend;guard: protect指采取一定措施,使用某些器具以保护人或物免遭损害,使用范围广泛。defend着重指用武力抵御攻击和侵犯。guard强调通过看守警戒,以确保安全。① The dog guards the house (against strangers). 狗守护着房子(不让陌生人进入)。② He put on the sunglasses to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight. 他戴上太阳镜以保护眼睛免受日光强烈照晒。
30. What we do is important because it affects the envi- ronment. 我们所做的很重要,因为它影响到了环境。(p.72 Writing 左格)
 affect此处用作及物动词,意为"影响",也可当作"感动;(疾病)侵袭"讲。如:① Does the amount of rain affect the growth of crops? 降水量会影响作物的生长吗? ② My throat is affected by a cold. 感冒引起我的嗓子疼。③ All the people in the room were affected to tears. 屋里所有的人都感动得流了泪。④ The story affected us deeply. 这个故事深深地打动了我们。⑤ The disease is beginning to affect her eye-sight. 这种疾病逐渐侵袭她的视力。⑥ This disease affects millions in the world every year. 这种病每年都使世界上成百万人受到感染。
 【辨析】affect;effect *affect作"影响"讲是及物动词 (= have an effect on)。* effect作"影响"讲是名词;用作动词意为"产生,引起"(=produce)。
will not affect us.
Government policy
          will have no effect on us.
31. I recommend that all of us should think about what we do and what we buy. 我建议我们大家都考虑一下我们该做什么及买什么。(p.72 Writing 右格)
 recommend此处用作及物动词,意为"劝告;建议",其后主要接动名词、that从句及含有不定式的复合宾语,在that从句中须用虚拟语气:(should)+动词原形。如:    ① He recommends wearing safety equipment.他建议佩戴安全装备。 ② The doctor recommended me to take a long
rest. 医生劝我长期休养。③ The teacher  recommended that we (should) read the novel. 老师劝我们读那本小说。
 【拓展】recommend还可意为"推荐;介绍",常用于下列几种结构中:a. recommend + 名词 + (of名词); b. recommend + 名词 + to名词(人);c. recommend + 名词 (人) + for动词;d. recommend+名词(人) + as名词。如: ① The pills are recommended for a cold. 那种药对治疗感冒很有效(所以可以推荐)。② Would you recommend a good dictionary to me? 你能介绍一本好词典给我吗? ③ He will recommend you for the job. 他将会推荐你做那项工作。④ I recommend her as your secretary. 我推荐她当你的秘书。
【单元语法】倒装1) 完全倒装(谓语全部放到主语前面)
(1)为了使某种情景表达得生动形象,在以in,out,up,down,away,off,over,next,such,back等副词作状语置于句首,谓语动词是come,go,rush,run等不及物动词的句子里,如:① Out rushed the students the moment the bell rang. 铃一响,学生们就冲了出去。② Up jumped the cat and caught the mouse. 猫跳上去抓住了老鼠。③ Down drops the meat into the fox's mouth. 这块肉往下一落,掉入狐狸的嘴巴里。④ Next came Tom. 下一个来的是汤姆。⑤ Such ended his life. 他就这样结束了生命。
【注意】若主语为人称代词,则用自然语序。如:In he came and the lesson began. 他走进来开始上课。
(2) there,here,now,then,引导的句子及there/here be (exist,etc.)引导表"存在"的句子。如:① There goes the bell and class is over. 铃响了,下课了。 ② Here comes the bus. Let's hurry. 车来了,快点。 ③ Now comes your turn. 现在轮到你了。④ Then followed a shot of gun. 接着是一声枪响。⑤ Here's a letter for you. 这儿有你的一封信。    ⑥ There exist different opinions on this question. 关于这个问题有不同的意见。
【注意】若主语为人称代词,则用自然语序。如: ① There you go again. 你又来这一套。② Here you are. 给你。
(3) 表示"地点"的词语置于句首或强调"地点"概念时,应特别注意主谓一致问题。如:① Between the two buildings stands a tall tree. 在两座大楼之间有棵大树。② On the ground lay a sick goat. 地上躺着一只生病的山羊。③ Inside the Pyramids are burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms. 金字塔里面是皇帝、皇后的停尸房和通往这些停尸房的通道。④ At the foot of the mountain runs a river. 山脚下有一条河。
(4) "作表语的现在分词/过去分词/形容词 + 系动词 + 主语"结构须用完全倒装。如:① Sitting at the back of the room was a shy girl with two big eyes. 一个长着两只大眼睛的腼腆女孩坐在屋子的后面。② Written on the blackboard are the names of those who were late yesterday. 黑板上写着昨天迟到的人的姓名。③ Gone are the days when the women were looked down upon. 妇女受歧视的年代一去不复返了。④ Present at the meeting WSS Mr. Liu,who taught us English. 刘老师出席了会议,他教我们英语。
(5)直接引语的全部或一部分置于句首时。如: ① "Help!" shouted the boy. "救命!"这男孩大声喊道。② "Exactly," said my father, shaking the old man's hand. "一点也不错,"爸爸握着老人的手说。
【注意】若引述动词后还有间接宾语或状语时,不倒装。如:① "Why?" the teacher asked him. "为什么?" 老师问他。② "Both,sir" he answered proudly."先生,我们都是。"他自豪地回答道。
2) 部分倒装(谓语的一部分如助动词、情态动词或系动词放到主语前面)
(1)表达否定意义或半否定意义的副词、介词短语、连词等置于句首时,常见词语有never,little,no sooner,hardly,seldom,not,by no means,in no case,in no time,not until,not a bit,many a time,  scarcely,  barely no longer,at no time,no sooner...than,often,hardly...when,not only...but also等。如:① Little did he know that the police were around. 他一点儿也不知道警察就在旁边。② Never before has our country been as united as it is today.现在我们的国家空前团结。③ Seldom have I seen such a big apple.我很少见到这么大的苹果。④ At no time does he do something against his will. 在任何情况下,他决不做违背他意志的事。⑤ No sooner had we reached the top of the hill than we all got down to rest. 我们一到山项,就都坐下来休息。⑥ Not only do I know her, but (also) I'm her close friend. 我不仅认识她,而且我还是她的挚友。
(2) 由only,not until引导的状语置于句首时。如:① Only when one is away from home does one realize how nice home is. 一个人只有离开家时才意识到家庭的温暖。 ② Only by working hard can we succeed. 只有通过努力工作,我们才能取得成功。③ Not until the teacher came in did he finish his homework. 直到老师进来他才完成作业。④ Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到我开始工作,我才意识到我自己浪费了多少时间。
(3) as引导让步状语从句时,意为"尽管",通常把句中状语、表语部分或动词提前;若表语是名词,不加冠词。如:① Clever as he is, he doesn't study well. 尽管他很聪明,但学习不好。② Child as he is, he has been to many places. 尽管他还是个孩子,但他已去过许多地方。③ Much as I wanted to see him,I dare not see him. 尽管我很想去看他,但是我又不敢去看他。④ Go as you may,you can't see him. 尽管你可以去,但你不会见到他。
(4) 在so/such...that(结果状语从句)结构中,若so或such引导的部分置于句首时,用倒装语序。如: ① So shallow is the lake that no fish can live in it. 湖这么浅以致里面没有鱼。② So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. 他说话声音这么大以至邻屋的人也能听到。③ Such a good boy is he that we all love him. 他是那么好的一个孩子,我们都喜欢他。
(5) so/neither/nor置于句首,表示前者情况也适用于后者,其句型为:so/neither/nor + be/助动词/情态动

高二英语Saving th...