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新课程高考英语非谓语动词用法详解

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[导读]新课程高考英语非谓语动词用法详解 成分 形式 主语 宾语 宾补 表语 定语 状语 不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √ -ing分词 √ √ √ √ √ √ -ed分词 √ √ √ √ * 繆運霖 在句中充当除了谓语以外的各种句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有三种形式:不定式,-ing分词和-ed分词。它...
             新课程高考英语非谓语动词用法详解
       成分形式主语宾语宾补表语定语状语不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √-ing分词 √ √ √ √ √ √-ed分词   √ √ √ √
* 繆運霖         在句中充当除了谓语以外的各种句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有三种形式:不定式,-ing分词和-ed分词。它同谓语动词的区别在于,谓语动词即作谓语的动词,有人称、数的变化,有时态、语态和语气的变化;而非谓语动词不能做谓语,因而没有人称、数的变化,但仍具有动词的特征即有时态和语态的变化,可以同否定词not连用,构成否定形式,可以带宾语,状语,补语。非谓语动词的名词,形容词,副词的特征;可用在句中做主语,宾语,补语,状语,和定语等。
一、不定式
  分为带to的不定式和不带to 的不定式。不定式有时态,语态的变化
  1. 一般式:不定式所表示的动作和谓语动词所表示的动作或状态同时发生或几乎同时发生或存在。但多数情况下是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生。
 e.g.: They often watch us play football. (同时)
     She hopes to go there again. (之后发生)
  2. 完成式:不定式所表示的动作或状态发生在谓语动词所表示动作或状态之前。
 e.g.: I'm glad to have seen your mother yesterday. I'm sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起让你久等了。
 关于不定式的一般式和完成式的用法,有以下几点值得注意:
 1)表目的,通常用不定式的一般式,很少用它的完成式
 e.g.: He worked very hard (in order) to finish the work by five.
 All these gifts must be mailed immediately so as to be received in time for Christmas.
 To complete the project in time, the staff were working at weekends.
 2)在seem to, appear to, 以及say, report, think, consider, believe, assume, expect, suppose, understand等表示"据说"之类意义的动词后用不定式的完成式,表示一个动作先于另一个动作发生,这种结构也可用it作形式主语表示e.g.:
 The novel is believed to have been translated into Chinese. =It is believed that the novel has been translated into Chinese.
 The little girl showed no anxiety before the competition. She seems to have prepared it pretty well.= It seems that she has prepared it pretty well.
 Her dress has become loose. She appears to have lost weight.
 --Is Bob still performing? --I'm afraid not. He is said to have left the stage already as he has become an official.
  这两种句式转换时,不定式的时态要看它的动作是先发生还是后发生,不定式动作先发生则用完成式,后发生或同时发生都用一般式
 e.g.: It is often said that human beings are naturally equipped to speak. = Human beings are often said to be equipped to speak.
  这种句式还常见于定语从句中,e.g.: The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported to have broken the world record in the 110-meter hurdle race.
 Police are now searching for a woman who is reported to have been missing since the flood hit the area last Friday.
 3)有些动词如hope, expect, think, intend, mean(=intend), suppose, want等用"过去完成时+不定式一般式"表示过去未曾实现的希望、打算或意图 e.g.: I had intended to write to you.
 在should (would) like, would love 等后,完成式表示没有实现的愿望
 e.g.: I should like to have seen her face when she read the letter.
 3. 进行式:1)当谓语动词的动作或状态发生时,不定式动词所表示动作正在进行时,用进行式。
 e.g.: They seemed to be talking about you. He pretended to be sleeping.
 2)不定式的进行式表示将来。 He is believed to be coming.
 3)不定式的进行式表示逐渐地变化  The weather seems to be improving.
 不定式的被动语态。在下列情况下要用被动语态
(1)  当句子的主语是这个不定式所表示动作的承受者。
 e.g.: She is glad to be taken to the Great Wall.
    This book is said to be put into English.
(2) 当不定式所修饰的名词是此不定式的逻辑宾语且句中又没有它的逻辑主语时。
 e.g.: He wanted the letter to be typed at once.
(3) 当句子的主语是不定式的逻辑宾语时,且不定式本身又带有一个宾语时,
 e.g.: She is too nervous to be told such a bad news.
     I'm glad to be given a gold ring.
(4) 当句子的主语和表语指同一人或物,不定式修饰这个表语名词时,且与这个名词有动宾关系时。
 e.g.: He is a man to be trusted
(5) 不定式做定语,且与所修饰的名词有动宾关系时。
 e.g.: The plan to be made is a five-year plan.
 不定式的主动语态表示被动含义。
(1) 当不定式与最近的名词(代词)有动宾关系,且与句中另一个名词(代词)有主谓关系。
 e.g.: He has nothing to eat. (He eats nothing)
 I'll give you a book to read. (You'll read a book)
(2) 当不定式在"主+表(形容词)"结构中做状语,且句中主语是这个不定式的逻辑宾语时。
 The text is easy to recite.
 (3) 当不定式修饰there be /here be 引导的句子中的主语时。
       There are two tractors to repair.
       Here is a baby to take care of.
 注:在there be 结构中,有时用不定式主动态与用不定式被动态含义不同。当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式;如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须被完成,则用被动形式。
   There is a lot of work to do. (Someone has to do the work)
   There is a lot of work to be done. (The work has to be done)
 不定式的句法功能
1、作主语,一般表示具体的某次动作
 直接做主语To help each other is good.
 动词不定式做主语时,一般可用it 做形式主语,而把真正的主语不定式放在句尾。It is good to help each other. 但如果动词不定式做主语,句中又有一个动词不定式做表语时,就只用不定式直接作主语 To see is to believe (眼见为实)。
2、 作表语   主语是以aim, duty, hope, idea, intention, plan, job, suggestion, wish, purpose, task等为中心的名词词组或以what引导的主语从句表示,后面的不定式说明其内容,不定式作表语常表示将来或现在的动作或状态。
 ▲常常说明或解释主语的内容,在很多情况下不定式做表语可转化为做主语。
  如:His job is to raise pigs =To raise pigs is his job
 ▲表示计划或安排
 A new bridge is to be built over the river soon.不久这条河上要架新桥。
 ▲ 表示事态发展的结果,预期的结果,不幸的命运或预言。
You must speak out, if we are to remain friends. 如果我们想继续做朋友,你必须痛痛快快的把话说出来。
 ▲ 表示情态意义,相当于can, could (可能), should, ought to(应该), must (必须)
 The books are not to be sold.
 He is nowhere to be found.
 ▲ 表示"同意,命令,决定,劝告,意愿,禁止"等
 You must be patient if you are to succeed. 要想成功,必须有耐心。
 In such dry weather, the flowers will have to be watered if they are to survive.
 不定式在系动词be 之后做表语与将来时的be+动词不定式结构有所区别。
  !)Our plan is to set up another middle school.
  句中的谓语动词是is ,动词不定式to set up 为表语,主语为plan,并不是不定式的逻辑主语,即动词不定式to set up 所表示的动作不是主语plan 产生的。
  !) We are to set up another middle school.
 整个结构为句中谓语,主语为we,同时也是动词不定式to set up 所表示的动作的逻辑主语,即动词不定式to set up 所表示的动作是we 产生的。
 3、 作宾语
 1) 一般来说,不定式只做动词的宾语,但介词except, but后可接不定式做宾语。
 She wishes to be a musician.
 Peter's not going anywhere except to work.彼得除了上班之外哪也不去。
 特别提示:某些动词后须跟不定式to do 做宾语
afford(有足够的金钱或时间做...);agree(同意);ask(要求做);attempt(尝试做,试图做); beg(恳求);choose(选择);decide(决定);demand(要求);desire(希望);determine(决定);expect(期望);fail(未能);happen(碰巧);hate(不喜欢做...);help(帮助);hope(希望);learn(学习);long(渴望);manage(设法做好);offer(提议);prefer(喜欢);pretend(假装);prepare(准备);promise(允诺);refuse(拒绝);remain(尚待);seem(好像);want(想要);wish(希望);wonder(感到奇怪)某些结构后面接省to的不定式:would /had rather do, had better do, do nothing but do,
 2)用代词it作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语不定式结构放在句尾。需用it代不定式作宾语的动词有:find, make, think, consider, feel 等。
 He feels it his duty to say that you are wrong.
 3)有些动词后可用"疑问词+不定式"做宾语,常用的动词有:decide, discover, forget, inquire, know, learn, see, think, wonder.
  e.g.: we don't know where to go.
 4 、作宾语补足语
 1)可接不定式做宾补的动词有:advise(建议);allow(允许);ask(请求);beg(乞求);cause(导致);choose(选择);consider(认为);drive(驱使);encourage(鼓励);enable(使能够);expect(期望);forbid(禁止);force(强迫);get(使);help(帮助);invite(邀请);intend(打算);like(喜欢);order(命令);permit(允许);persuade(劝说);prefer(喜欢);request(请求);require(要求); remind(提醒);teach(教);tell(告诉);want(想要);warn(警告);wish(希望);think(认为);trouble(麻烦)....
 e.g.: Tell the students not to play on the street.
 The teacher advised us to have a rest first.
 2)动词let, have, make, notice, watch, observe, feel, hear, listen to, see, look at.等后用省去to的不定式做宾补,如改为被动语态,省掉的to 要加上。
 e.g.: I heard Mary sing last night.   Mary was heard to sing last night.
 3) tell, advise, show, teach 等还可接连接代词/连接副词+不定式作宾补。
 e.g.: The old driver showed me how to drive the car.
 4) think, consider, believe, suppose, know, feel , find understand, declare, imagine, take 等动词接不定式做宾补,但这个不定式多为to be +adj./ adv./ n.,to be可省略
 e.g.: We thought him to be a naughty boy.
     He felt the plan to be practical.
 5、 作定语
 常接不定式作定语的名词有ability, agreement, ambition, anxiety, attempt, decision, determination, failure, intention, hope, need, plan, promise, tendency, threat, wish等。
 the first, second, last, only, best等序数词、最高级及no, all, any等限定的中心词后常接不定式作定语,e.g.: He is always the first to come and the last to leave.
不定式做定语和它所修饰名词存在三种关系。
1) 动宾关系:不定式所修饰的名词是这个不定式的逻辑宾语。
 e.g.: I want something to eat.
 He had a meeting to attend.
 注:如果这个不定式是vi.,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点,工具等,不定式后面要加必要的介词。
 e.g.: -- I would like to buy an expensive camera. -- Well. We have several models to choose from.
如果被不定式修饰的名词为place, time, way,不定式后的介词习惯上可以省略。e.g.: The old man is looking for a quiet place to live.
 2)  主谓关系:不定式所修饰的名词是这个不定式的逻辑主语(即动作的发出者)
 e.g.: He is the first man to work out the problem.
 3)  同位关系:不定式与所修饰的名词存在一种同位关系。可形成这种关系的名词有:way, need, time, plan, right, chance, opportunity, movement, reason, promise, wish, effort, struggle.
 e.g.: Liu Mei is on her way to see a film.
 4)  起限定作用,表示将来
 e.g.: The question will be discussed at the meeting to be opened in Beijing.
 6、作状语
 不定式做状语时,其逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则用for引导逻辑主语。
1)跟在某些表示喜怒哀乐等感情的词后面表原因。
 e.g.: I'm sorry to have troubled you.
 He was surprised to learn how much she'd spent.
2) 作目的状语,用不定式的一般式,既可放于句首,也可置于句末;为加强语气,也可用"so as to do(只能放在句尾)"或"in order to do(可放在句首或句尾)"表目的。
 e.g.: He gets up early to read English.
     Many farmers fertilize their crops in order to make them grow more quickly. 许多农民上化肥为的是让作物长得更快。
3)作结果状语。通常置于谓语动词后面,所表示的行为通常发生在谓语动词之后。
▼ 不定式短语表示结果时,常于only, just连用,暗示一种"意外的结果,意想不到,不料"
 He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet.
 He hurried to the booking office, only to be told that all the tickets have been sold out.
▼ 不定式作结果状语(并非意外的结果), e.g.: They lived to see the liberation of their hometown.
 She woke early to find it was raining.
 In 1935, he left home never to return. 他离家结果一去不复返。
 常用于以下结构:so (adj /adv) as to...
 such (n.) as to...
 too...to...
 enough...to...
 I'm too tired to walk any further tonight.
 My son is old enough to go to school alone.
 Would you be so kind as to give me an early reply?
 I'm not such a fool as to believe that.
 注:在有些句子中,too...to... 可表示肯定含义。
▼too 前有only, never, not, all, but , just, simply时( only too, all too, but too)表"非常"。
 I'm only too glad to see you.
▼ 不定式符号to前有not 时。
 You're too sad not to cry.
▼too后接easy, happy, really, willing. glad, surprise, eager, anxious等表示心情或描述性的形容词时,
 This book is too easy to understand.
 7、不定式的否定形式: "not/ never+不定式"
  My father told me not to skate on the lake.
  Father told me never to see her again.
 特别提示:不定式作目的状语时,否定形式不能用not to do sth.,应该用in order not to do sth 或so as not to do sth.
 e.g.: I'm going to start now in order not to miss the beginning. 我现在就出发为的是不错过开头。
 重点关注:
 1.It is + adj for sb to do 或 It is adj of sb to do
  我们常用for sb 或of sb.来做不定式的逻辑主语,什么情况下用for 或of,主要从以下两方面来进行区别:
 1) for sb的句型通常使用表示客观情况的形容词。如: easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, necessary, unnecessary. Interesting等。如:
 e.g.: It is important for us to express our opinions
 It is hard for him to get rid of his bad habits.
 2) of sb 的句型一般用表示人的性格品质、主观感情或态度的形容词,如:good, kind, nice, wise, clever, silly. stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careful, careless, polite, impolite, rude 等
 e.g.: It is clever of him to leave that country.
 It was very kind of you to come to help me.
 2. 疑问词+不定式在句中起名词的作用,可做主语,表语,宾语,相当于由该疑问词引导的名词性从句。
 e.g.: How to prevent from swimming in this river is a problem.
    He will teach us how to study.
My question is when to begin the experiment.
We must think of what to do next.
 3. 不定式符号to 保留问题
 有时为了避免重复,可用to 代替前面的不定式,这种情况常出现在下列动词之后。
 expect/ hope/ wish/ mean/ prefer/care/ forget/ want/ try/plan/hate...后或出现在be glad/happy/,would like/ love等的后面。
 --Would you like to have some coffee?--Yes, I'd like to.
 但是如果在省略的不定式结构中含有be, have, have been,这些词也要保留。
 --Are you on holiday?--No, but I'd like to be.
 --I didn't tell him the news.--Oh, you ought to have.
 My father wanted me to be a lawyer, but I didn't want to be.
 4.省去to的不定式
 1)在had better, would rather, would rather/ sooner ... than, might (just) as well, cannot ... but, why (not)等结构后的不定式,不定式符号常省略
e.g.: I'd rather/ sooner stop now.
I cannot but agree to his terms.
  We might as well not have a car at all.
2)rather than, sooner than后多用不带to的不定式(也见有用-ing分词)
e.g.: Rather than get money in such a dishonest way, he would beg in the streets.
Rather than wasting time playing cards as usual, I devoted every effort to making an advertisement.
He did the work by himself rather than ask/ asking for help.
3)but, except, besides, other than后作宾语的不定式,且介词之前有行为动词do,不定式符号to常省略。
e.g.: What do you like to do besides swim?
Now he had given himself no choice but to tell her.
4)当what引导的名词性从句作主语或all, everything等后接定语从句做主语,从句谓语部分含有行为动词do,做表语的不定式可以省略不定式符号to(也可保留)
e.g.: The only thing I can do now is (to) go on by myself.
 5)两个或两个以上由and、or连接,作用相同的不定式并列使用时,除第一个外其余不定式的to可省略。
e.g.: She told the child to stay there and wait till she came back.
 但两者若有对比关系时,每个不定式前都要加to.
 To be or not to be, that is the question.
 He hasn't decided whether to go home or to stay at school.
 6)主语被不定式修饰时,不定式做表语时省略to.
 The thing for you to do is face the facts.你要做的事是面对事实。
 5.不定式在句中作为独立成分
 有时不定式在句中作为独立成分出现,用来说明说话人的态度,一般来讲,人们已经把这些不定式作为固定词组或固定搭配来运用。
 e.g.: He can't walk fast, not to speak of running.他走不快,更不用说跑。
 Strange to say, his hair turned white during the night.说来奇怪,他头发一夜间变白了。
 高考需记住的常用固定词组有:to tell ( speak, say) the truth (说实话吧),to make a long story short(长话短说),to be brief (简而言之),to say nothing of(更不必说),not to speak of...(更不必说),not to mention...(更不必提),let alone (更不用说),strange to say(说也奇怪),to be exact(确切地说),to begin with(首先),to make things worse(更遭的是),to conclude (总而言之,最后),to hear him talk(听他说话的口气), so to speak(好比说)等等
二、-ing分词
     动词-ing分词是由动词变化而来,既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词、形容词、副词的句法功能。
 1.动词-ing分词的形式:
 (1)一般式: Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。
 (2)被动式: He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。
 (3)完成式: We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。
 (4)完成被动式:
He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old.他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。
 (5)完成进行式:(这种形式高考很少会考察到)
Having been living in another city for two years, she misses her family very much.
 (6)否定式:not + -ing分词
 I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。
 (7)复合结构:物主代词(人称代词或名词及其所有格)+ -ing分词,在句中作宾语、介宾、主语,作状语即是通常所说的"独立结构"。
 Do you mind my/me making a suggestion?
 The discovery of new evidence led to the thief being caught.
 His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。
 Mary's coming late made the teacher very angry.玛丽的迟到让老师很生气。
 2.动词-ing分词的句法功能:
 (1)作主语: (表一般或抽象的多次性的行为)
 Reading aloud is very helpful.    Collecting stamps is interesting.
 Being misunderstood by others when you do nothing wrong at all is quite a bad experience.
 当动词-ing分词短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语。It's no use quarrelling.争吵是没用的。
 (2)作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。
The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. be + -ing既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是-ing分词做表语,它们的区别在于be + -ing表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。
   -ing分词用于come, go, stand, sit, lie等少数动词之后,表示这两个动作同时发生
 They stood talking to each other.
(3)作宾语:
 They haven't finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。
 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。
   注意动词-ing分词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动词-ing分词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如:
 We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。
   要记住如下动词及短语只跟动词-ing分词作宾语:
enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practice, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can't stand, can't help(情不自禁地), think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent...(from), keep ...from, stop...(from), protect...from, set about, be engaged in, spend...(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like
 You can't imagine what difficulty we had walking home in the snowstorm.
allow, advise, forbid, permit, consider后接-ing分词作宾语;如后接名词或代词作宾语,应用不定式作宾补,即allow/ permit/ forbid/ advise/ consider doing sth.和allow/ permit/ forbid/ advise/ consider sb. to do sth.
 (4)作宾语补足语:
see, watch, hear, feel, notice, observe, listen to, look at, find等表感觉和心理状态的动词、catch, leave, get, keep, set, start, have等表"致使"的动词后可跟-ing分词作宾语补足语,表示-ing分词动作与主句动作同时发生: e.g.: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?
 He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。
 还用在regard...as、describe...as、accept...as、think of...as等结构中
 They described the little girl as being very clever.
 (5)作定语:
 ①-ing分词作定语,表示被修饰的名词的用途。He can't walk without a walking-stick.  Is there a swimming pool in your school?
 当-ing分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是-ing分词短语做定语放在名词后。
 ②表示正在进行的动作、经常性或习惯性动作或现在(当时)的状态,相当于一个定语从句。
 In the following years (=in the years that followed), he worked even harder.
 The man speaking to the teacher (=who is speaking to the teacher) is our monitor's father.
 (6)作同位语:
 His habit, listening to the news on the radio, remains unchanged.他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。
 (7)作状语:(作状语时其逻辑主语与主句的主语一致,否则,需在分词前加上逻辑主语构成独立逐个结构)
 ①表时间: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker.
 ②表原因: Being a League member, he is always helping others.
 ③表行为方式或伴随状况: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing.
 Alice stopped speaking as if waiting for him to speak.
 ④表条件: (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.
 ⑤表结果: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces.
 ⑥表让步: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon.
 Weighing almost 100 pounds, the stone was moved by him alone.
 ⑦与逻辑主语构成独立主格结构: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard.
 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly.
 Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises.
 有时也可用with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+-ing分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep.
 ⑧作独立成分(垂悬分词):
 Frankly speaking(坦白地说),seeing(考虑到),considering/ taking ... into consideration(考虑到),supposing/ providing=provided/ assuming(如果,假使)
 Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。
 Walking or sleeping, the subject was always in my mind.
 Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。
 3. 下列句型用-ing分词 It is/ was
You have no business talking to me the way you did yesterday.
It's great fun doing sth.
It's worthwhile doing sth.
There's no sense in doing sth. (做某事没有道理)
It's a waste of time doing sth.
There's no point (in) doing sth. (没有做某事的必要、理由、意义)
see no point (in) doing sth. (发现做某事没有必要、理由、意义)
三、-ed分词
  -ed分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed构成;不规则动词的-ed分词没有统一的规则要求,要一一记住。 及物动词的-ed分词表示"被动"、"完成"意义,不及物动词的-ed分词表示"主动"、"完成"意义。
1. -ed分词的句法功能:
 1)作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday.
 The first mammal cloned from an adult cell was Dolly the sheep.
 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting.
  注意当-ed分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是-ed分词短语,就放在名词的后面。-ed分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
 2)作表语: The window is broken. 窗户破了。
 They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。
 注意:be + -ed分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作则是被动语态。区别:
 The window is broken.(系表)
 The window was broken by the boy.(被动)
  不及物动词的-ed分词是不能表示被动的,它们的-ed分词只表示"完成"、"过去"。这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed等。 如:
 boiled water(开水)/ fallen leaves(落叶)/ newly arrived goods(新到的货)/ the risen sun(升起的太阳)/ the changed world(变了的世界)
  The ground is covered with fallen leaves. 地上铺满了落叶。
  At present China is still less developed than most of western countries. 目前中国还没有多数西方国家发达。
  Eating boiled eggs will do you good. 吃煮鸡蛋对你的身体有好处。
-ed分词用于come, go, stand, sit, lie等少数动词之后,表示这两个动作同时发生
The boy sat at the table buried in his homework.
 3)作宾语补足语(句子的宾语就是其逻辑主语)
 I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。
 He found it hard to make himself understood.(have, make+宾语+-ed,该分词动作是由别人做的而不是句子主语自己做的)
 有时-ed分词做with短语中的宾语补足语(独立结构),e.g.: With the work done, they went out to play.
 4)作状语:
 Shocked by the article, the woman wrote a letter to the newspaper. (表示原因)
 Once seen, it can never be forgotten.(表示时间)
 Given more time, I'll be able to do it better.(表示条件)
 Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy.(表示让步)
 The teacher came into the lab, followed by some students. (表示伴随)
2. -ed分词的否定(not,never等)要放在过去分词前面。如:
  Not given enough time, I had to give up halfway.
3. 修饰分词的副词一般置于分词的前面。如:
  Greatly encouraged by the story, we are determined to do our best for the country.
4. -ed分词还可以与其它词组成合成形容词。
  1)副词+-ed分词:well-educated(受过良好教育的),ill-treated(受到恶劣对待的),overused(被滥用的),homemade(家制的),underdeveloped(欠发达的),overdeveloped(过度开发的),well-loved(备受喜爱的),little-known(鲜为人知的),well-accepted(普遍接受的)
  2)名词+-ed分词:hand-made(手工制作的),man-made(人造的),handwritten(手写的)
  3))另外还有,形容词(或名词)+名词+-ed的形式:kind-hearted(心地善良的),absent-minded(心不在焉的), warm-blooded(<动物>温血的;易激动的),empty-handed(空手的)
  形容词化的-ed分词与-ing分词
  有些动词的-ed分词和-ing分词已经变成了形容词,这类动词的往往与人的心理感受有关,如:
  amaze(使吃惊)- amazed - amazing; excite(使兴奋)- excited - exciting, please(使满意)- pleased - pleasing, thrill(使紧张)- thrilled - thrilling等。这类-ed分词表示:
  ①"感到......的(having the feeling of )",表示人的感受,例如:
  The public was shocked at his intention to clone a human. 公众对他克隆人的意图感到震惊。
  The disappointed parents gave a wry smile.(感到)失望的父母苦笑了笑。
  ②流露出......的(showing the feeling of),用来形容人的"表情、眼神"等,常修饰像look, expression, eye等名词,如:
  The audience wore a bored look on their faces. 听众脸上挂着厌烦的表情。
-ing分词则表示"令人(感到)......的(giving the feeling of),多修饰表示事物的名词,但也不尽然,在特定的语境中要多加推敲。如:
  The result is disappointing. 结果令人失望。
  They rejoiced at the exciting news. 他们对这令人兴奋的消息欣喜若狂。
  试比较:the disappointed boy(感到)失望的男孩(意思是说这个男孩感到失望)
      the disappointing boy 令人失望的男孩(意思是说这个男孩令人失望)
  三、图解分词(分词各种形式的比较)
  在多数情况下,-ing分词表示"主动"、"进行"的含义; -ed分词表示"被动"、"完成"的含义;
  如果是"被动"但又是"进行",那么就用"-ing分词的被动式","-ing分词的被动式"一般用作定语。
  如果是"主动"但又是"完成",那么就用"-ing分词的完成式","-ing分词的完成式" 一般用作状语。
-ing分词的被动式 the bridge being built 正在(被)兴建的桥
主动  + 进行 =-ing分词 the workers building the bridge 正在建桥的工人
被动  + 完成 =-ed分词 the bridge built 已(被)建成的桥
-ing分词的完成式 Having built the bridge, the workers were allowed some days' leave. 建完了桥后,...
独立主格结构
当分词的逻辑主语与主句主语不一致时,常采用独立主格结构,即带主语的分词,在句中一般作状语,
1)表时间:Her homework done, Mary decided to go shopping.
2)表原因:There being no bus then, he had to stay for another day.
3)表条件:Weather permitting, we'll go to play basketball.
4)表伴随:He sat at the table, head down.
(也见作同位语、定语,高考很少会考察到。)
其基本形式为:"名词或代词+非谓语动词等":
①n./pron. + -ing (-ing分词与n./pron.为主谓关系,表示该n/pron.主动进行的动作或状态)
The man lay there, his hands trembling.
有时-ing分词如是being、having been,在独立主格结构中可以省略,
e.g.: The weather (being) fine, we decided to go on an outing.
②n./pron. + -ed (-ed分词与n./pron.为动宾关系,表示该n./pron.被动完成的动作)
The girl lay on her back, her hands crossed under her head.
③n./pron. +不定式短语(不定式表将来)He suggested going for a picnic, Mary to provide the food.
④n/pron. + adj.短语(性质、状态等)The floor wet, we had to stay outside for a while.
⑤n/pron. + adv短语(状态)The meeting over, we all went home.
⑥n./pron. + prep短语The teacher came in, a book in his hand.
⑦"with/ without +宾语+宾补(-ing/ -ed/ 不定式/adj./ adv./ prep)",在句中作状语、定语。
With so much work to do, I shall not be able to watch the match with you.
Without anything to eat, he died of hunger.
John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work finished, he gladly accepted it.
He likes reading with music on.
The woman with a baby in her arms is my aunt.
有时独立主格结构中名词前的修饰词可省略。e.g.: The boy sat quietly in the office, (his) eyes closed/ (a) book in (his) hand.
There be结构的非谓语形式
在句中作主语、宾语、状语。
1、作动词的宾语时,用there to be不用there being,常用这种结构的动词有expect, want, would like, intend, prefer, like, hate, mean等
He hates there to be long queues everywhere.
Ann never expects there to be a chance for her to be sent abroad very soon.
It's important for there to be a fire-escape.
但在let there be搭配中用不带to的不定式
Let there be no mistake about this. Don't let there be any noise.
2、作主语时两种结构皆可。There being a primary school here is a great convenience to the children.
3、作状语多用there being,但在介词for之后用there to be。
There being nobody else at hand, I had to do by myself.
It is too early for there to be anybody up.(太早了,还不会有人起床)
非谓语动词随堂测验  (共50小题单项选择,时间45分钟)
1. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them _______ in his lectures.
A. interested           B. interesting         C. interest          D. to interest
2. Every evening after dinner, if not ______ from work, I will spend some time walking my dog.
A. being tired          B. tiring             C. tired             D. to be tired
3. So far nobody has claimed the money ______ in the library.
A. discovered          B. to be discovered    C. discovering       D. having discovered
4. In April, thousands of holidaymakers remained _______ abroad due to the volcanic ash cloud.
A. sticking            B. stuck              C. to be stuck       D. to have stuck
5. Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English _____ in a short period.
A. improved           B. improving         C. to improve       D. improve
6. -- How are they getting on with their work?   -- All goes well as ______.
A. to be planned        B. being planned      C. planned         D. planning
7. A brilliant idea occurred to him, ______ to his research in the lab.
A. while devoting  B. while devoting himself   C. while he was devoted   D. while devoted
8. The book mainly deals with the trouble teens might have ______ right from wrong.
A. distinguishing       B. distinguished      C. to distinguish      D. to be distinguished
9. _______ from Milan Trenc's novel, the film Night at the Museum brings to life a world where dinosaurs wander the earth.
A. Adapted            B. Adapting         C. Having adapted     D. To be adapted
10. When we visited my old family home, memory came _______ back.
A. flooding            B. to flood          C. flood              D. flooded
11. -- Can those _______ at the back of the classroom hear me?    -- No problem.
A. seat                B. sit              C. seated             D. sat
12. ______ by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more green houses.
A. Driven              B. Being driven     C. To drive            D. Having driven
13. If there's a lot of work _____, I'm happy to just keep on until it is finished.
A. to do               B. to be doing       C. done               D. doing
14. Lucy's new job paid twice as much as she had made _______ in the restaurant.
A. working            B. work             C. to work            D. worked
15. Something as simple as _______ some cold water may clear your mind and relieve pressure.
A. to drink             B. drinking          C. to be drinking       D. drunk
16. _______ and guilty, Maggie put the book back on the shelf she had secretly placed in her schoolbag.
A. Frightened           B. Frightening       C. Being frightened    D. To be frightening
17. Each time invited to a dinner, she always refuses, ______ she has to take care of her baby.
A. to say               B. saying            C. says              D. having said
18. It does make sense ______ after ______. You should cheer up and practice hard instead.
A. to complain; being defeated                 B. complain; defeating
C. complain; being defeated                   D. to complain; defeating
19. She couldn't help, even though she tried not to, _______ at the strange clothes her friend was wearing.
A. to laugh              B. laugh            C. laughing           D. laughed
20. Exciting as its special effects are ______, there is too much violence in the film.
A. to watch              B. to be watching    C. watching           D. being watched
21. -- What has made him upset recently?
-- ______ alone to face a troublesome milk case.
A. Left                  B. Being left        C. Having left         D. To leave
22. Because of the heavy sandstorm, we had to put off the visit until tomorrow to the exhibition of painting _______ in the nearby city.
A. to hold                B. held            C. holding            D. being held
23. While building a tube through the mountain, _________.
A. an underground lake was discovered         B. there was an underground lake discovered
C. a lake was discovered underground        D. the workers discovered an underground lake
24. The traffic problems we are looking forward to seeing _______ of the quality of the vehicle.
A. solving                B. solve           C. to solve            D. solved
25. -- Where were you yesterday? I didn't find you ______ the concert!
-- I had not been informed of _______ a concert.
A. attend; there to be                         B. attending; there being
C. attended; there be                         D. to attend; there been
26. If your composition _______ by the end of this week is delayed, you're sure to lose some points from your final result.
A. to be finished           B. is finished       C. will have been finished   D. finishing
27. David apologized for _______ to inform me of the change in the plan.
A. his being not able    B. him not to be able   C. his not being able   D. him to be not able
28. Ashley, _______ such cases, is sure instantly to come up with a brilliant idea.
A. experiencing          B. having experienced   C. to experience       D. experienced
29. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work _______, he gladly accepted it.
A. finished                B. finishing         C. having finished      D. was finished
30. ______ local customs can often lead to misunderstandings when people go abroad.
A. Not having known    B. Not to be known    C. Not knowing     D. Not to have known
31.Nearly half a million people are believed ______ their homes as a result of the disaster.
A. to leave                B. to be left        C. to be leaving         D. to have left
32. The silence of the library is sometimes broken by a sudden cough or the sound of pages _____.
A. turning                B. turned          C. being turned         D. having turned
33. ______ the working efficiency, the boss allows the employees to have a coffee break.
A. Improving             B. To improve       C. Having improved     D. Improved
34. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, ________ in natural light during the day.
A. to let                 B. letting           C. let                  D. having let
35. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecrafts, the most recent         at the end of last March.
 A. has been launched   B. having been launched   C. being launched     D. to be launched
36. ______ from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees.
A. Seen                 B. Seeing           C. Having seen        D. To see
37. The retired man donated most of his savings to the school damaged by the earthquake in Yushu, _______ the students to return to their classrooms.
A. enabling             B. having enabled     C. to enable          D. to have enabled
38. ______ the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grow into international stars.
A. Giving               B. Having given      C. To give           D. Given
39. Feeling more and more pressure from the environment _______, the government has decided to close down the factories pouring out poisonous chemicals.
A. polluted           B. having polluted     C. being polluted    D. having been polluted
40. Technologically _______, China's Change project does better than any earlier project of the same kind.
A. speaking             B. spoken           C. speak           D. to speak
41. The message is very important, so it is supposed _______ as soon as possible.
A. to send              B. to be sent          C. being sent       D. sending
42. Don't respond to any e-mails ______ personal information, no matter how official they look.
A. searching            B. asking             C. requesting      D. questioning
43. He hurried to the booking office, only ______ that all the tickets has been sold out.
A. to be told            B. to tell              C. told           D. telling
44. You have no business______ to me the way you did yesterday.
 A. about talking         B. talking             C. talked          D. on talking
45. We must treasure every minute because______ time is ______forever.
 A. lost; losing           B. lost; lost            C. losing; losing    D. losing; lost
46. --The plan is heard _______ so well that we don't have to make any changes.
-- It is indeed.
 A. to design             B. designing           C. designed        D. design
47. The woman found it no good ____ her daughter too much money.
 A. giving               B. being given          C. given          D. gave
48. Her dress has become loose. She appears ____ weight.
 A. to lose               B. being lost           C. losing          D. to have lost
49. The purpose of new drugs used on patients is to make them less painful, _______ them more terrible.
 A. not make            B. not to make          C. not making      D. do not make
50. -- I would like to buy an expensive camera.
-- Well. We have several models ____.
 A. to choose from       B. of choice            C. to be chosen     D. for choosing
            

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